Archive for Fukushima

Decontamination After Radiation Exposure: Simpler Than You May Think

Posted in 2020, Health with tags , , , , on April 21, 2020 by theboldcorsicanflame

 

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https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2011/03/17/134627643/decontamination-after-radiation-exposure-simpler-than-you-may-think?t=1587310914375

A boy evacuated from Koriyama, some 37 miles from the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, gets scanned with a Geiger counter Wednesday.

Ken Shimizu/AFP/Getty Images

The Japanese government says 20 workers at the disabled Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant have been decontaminated after exposure to radioactive material.

Dozens more, at least, have reportedly been decontaminated within the 12-mile evacuation zone around the plant after Geiger counters picked up evidence of radiation exposure.

That made us wonder just how someone gets decontaminated from radiation – which, after all, is invisible, odorless, tasteless and generally insidious. Most people think of it as “rays,” which is partially correct.

The answer might surprise you.

“Decontamination is very simple,” says Dr. Eric Toner of the University of Pittsburgh’s Center for Biosecurity, who has studied what might happen in the wake of a terrorist’s “dirty bomb” attack.

“As a rule of thumb, 80 percent of decontamination is removing your clothes,” says Toner, an emergency physician. “And 95 percent is removing your clothes and taking a shower — if possible, shampooing your hair. That’s all that’s involved. No fancy chemicals.”

That’s because radiation is carried on dust particles. “The air isn’t radioactive, but small dust particles are,” Toner explains. “You’re essentially washing off the dust.”

So a rain is a good thing at the time of, or after, a radiation leak. Rain washes the dust from the air, diluting it in runoff. (Yes, the runoff would be radioactive, but diluted — and presumably, the ground would also be getting radiation exposure already.)

Dry air, when dust gets kicked up in the air and disbursed over longer distances, is bad.

By the way, the dusty clothes can often be decontaminated simply by washing them, but it depends on the amount of radiation detected. “If you have reason to think they’re heavily contaminated, they should be disposed of properly,” Toner says. That means put in a plastic bag and, if possible, taking them to authorities for disposal.

All this raises another question – how to decide if somebody needs to be decontaminated.

At a place like the Fukushima power plant, where workers wear dosimeters that constantly record exposure and the environment is being continually monitored for radioactivity levels, the decision is clear-cut.

But it’s far less so out among the general public. In a situation like the current one, there’s a profound lack of information on radiation levels at different distances from the power plant and how they might be fluctuating over time.

In an emergency room or post-disaster setting, Toner says doctors would usually use a Geiger counter to screen people – before decontamination, to see if they’ve had any detectable exposure to start with, and afterward, to see if they still have traces of radioactive dust.

There is a lot of Geiger-countering going on in northern Japan right now – as most TV-watchers know by now. But using Geiger counter readings, given in “counts-per-minute,” or cpm, is not necessarily a great way to know if you need decontamination. Or whether it’s time to start taking potassium iodide pills to protect against thyroid cancer.

Steve Herman knows about that. He’s a correspondent for Voice of America who got a Geiger counter scan Thursday in Koriyama, a town 37 miles from the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant as the crow flies.

“My body 1,500 cpm, my boots 3,000 cpm. Another reporter: 10,000 cpm on her shoes,” Herman tweeted.

What to make of those readings? It’s hard to know.

“It is really hard to interpret Geiger counter cpm’s,” Toner says. “They vary from machine to machine. For example, they depend on the size of the probe – the bigger the probe, the more counts detected. And each machine must be calibrated against a known source (of radiation). Translating the cpm’s to an actual exposure does take a health physicist.”

In addition, Geiger counter readings don’t tell you a thing about the type of radiation a person may be exposed to – whether it’s a fairly weak and short-lived isotope that doesn’t pose a health risk, a form of radioactive iodine that signals the need to take protective tablets, or a more sinister isotope, such as cesium-137, that can raise long-term health risks if it gets inside the body.

And this is the most worrisome form of contamination – internal contamination. The bad stuff on skin and clothes is easily washed off. But once radiactice particles get inside the body – through breathing in, but more importantly from ingestion – it can remain in tissues, possibly wreaking submicroscopic havoc, for a lifetime.

That’s why Thursday, Japanese authorities activated provisions of its Food Sanitation Act, which allows the government to test food for radioactive contamination and pull it from the market.

Experts say it was the Soviet Union’s failure to do that, for many weeks after the 1986 Chernobyl power plant disaster, that caused most of the health consequences – which continue to this day

 

 

 

NUCLEAR ENERGY: RADIATION VS. CONTAMINATION

Posted in 2020, Health with tags , , , , on April 16, 2020 by theboldcorsicanflame

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Pripyat in Ukraine had to be abandoned after the Chernobyl accident due to the high amount of radioactive contamination

A common misconception is the idea that exposure to radiation in turn makes someone radioactive. This is, usually, not the case. It’s important, then, to understand the differences between radiation, and radioactivity.

WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE RADIOACTIVE?

An atom is said to be “radioactive” if it is unstable due the excess of either energy or mass, and is therefore likely to decay at some point and give off radiation. A substance or material is said to be “radioactive” if it is made up of or contains a large quantity of a radioactive material. These radioactive materials, such as bananas, the uranium glaze in vintage fiestaware, or NORM generated in the process of natural gas exploration, give off radiation over time as the radioactive atoms in them decay.

Uranium Ore, a naturally radioactive substance
Uranium Ore, a naturally radioactive substance

Over time, as the number of unstable atoms decreases, the material becomes less radioactive. This time is measured by the “half life” of different radioactive elements. This is the amount of time it takes for half of the atoms in a given sample to decay and give off radiation. For example, carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years, so after that amount of time, a quantity of 100 atoms of C-14 would have turned into 50 C-14 atoms and 50 Nitrogen-14 atoms. Iridium-11, a radioactive isotope used in medicine as a tracer, has a half-life of 2.8 hours; whereas another isotope of iridium at the other end of the scale, iridium-115 has a half-life of 441 trillion years. It’s commonly held that a sample of radioactive material will be completely decayed after 7 half lives, though after that time there would still be about 0.78% left, which with a large enough starting sample would still be significant. For smaller samples like those typically used in medicine, though, it’s a good rule of thumb.

WHAT IS CONTAMINATION?

Put simply, radioactive contamination is just radioactive material somewhere it shouldn’t be. This could be anything from nuclear fallout from a dirty bomb (the whole purpose of which would be to disperse radioactive contaminant), to a lab worker splashing some of a radioactive solution on his pants and taking them home. The most common source of contamination is from mistakes or accidents in the production of radionuclides, like those used in the medical field.

Pripyat in Ukraine had to be abandoned after the Chernobyl accident due to the high amount of radioactive contamination
Pripyat in Ukraine had to be abandoned after the Chernobyl accident due to the high amount of radioactive contamination

Contamination on or in a surface can be either “fixed” or “removable.” An example of fixed contamination, or contamination that isn’t able to be removed, would be in metal recycling: If a batch of recycled metal included something with radioactive material in it, the final product would have that radioactive material mixed in and permanently part of it. Removable contamination is, of course, removable, such as a loose powder or something that can be cleaned and safely disposed of. Disposal of radioactive waste can consist of reprocessing it for commercial use, though in some cases where this isn’t possible the best solution is burying it in concrete, rock, as this helps prevent the spread of the contamination any further.

DOES BEING EXPOSED TO RADIATION MAKE ME RADIOACTIVE?

Exposure to radiation does not immediately make a person radioactive. The only type of radiation that is capable of directly causing other material to become radioactive is neutron radiation, which is generally only found inside nuclear reactors or in a nuclear detonation. Anyone in those conditions is, put plainly, going to have bigger problems.

CT Scans and other routine medical procedures expose someone to radiation without leaving that person radioactive afterward
CT Scans and other routine medical procedures expose someone to radiation without leaving that person radioactive afterward

However, the ingestion of radioactive material does have the potential of making a person radioactive, at least on a temporary basis. This is the principle behind the medical use of many radioactive materials, as it aids in imaging, diagnosis, and other areas. Between the short half-lives of the elements involved and the body’s natural means of disposing of many radioactive elements, a person’s individual radioactivity is usually short-lived. However, certain types of contamination, depending on the isotopes involved and the availability of treatment, can become more permanently deposited in a person’s organs or bones.

 

TO BE CONTINUED ON

https://www.mirion.com/learning-center/radiation-safety-basics/radiation-vs-contamination

What you didn’t know about iodine, but could save your life

Posted in 2017 with tags , , , , , , on April 2, 2017 by theboldcorsicanflame

 

Unfortunately, due to today’s environmental pollutants, iodine deficiency has become a worldwide epidemic. It’s common knowledge that pollutants cause cancer, but what many don’t know is that these pollutants cause a deficiency that can make us sick. Iodized salt–supposedly a solution to iodine deficiency– provides a false sense of security. The government RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of Iodine for adults is a paltry 150 mcg. (micrograms).

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  Noted medical doctor Guy Abraham, MD said, “RDA doses of iodine are ineffective in preventing oxidative DNA damage and have no anti-cancer effect in the body.” Did you know that doctors once considered iodine to be one of the most beneficial medicines on the planet? Iodine is utilized by every cell in the human body and a lack of iodine can make it difficult to properly detoxify the body; create thyroid dysfunction and promote cancer cell growth.

With rising concerns of radiation exposure from the Fukushima nuclear power plant explosion, many have turned to iodine to prevent the absorption of radiation. This comes on the heels of a new study that shows the radioactive plume will reach the U.S. by this year.

A study conducted by the University of New South Wales showed that the plume of radioactive cesium-137 released by the Fukushima disaster in 2011 could begin flowing into U.S. coastal waters starting in early 2014 and peak in 2016. Breathing in radioiodine, which is released from nuclear power plants, could hurt your thyroid gland, or even cause thyroid cancer later on.

You could breathe in the radioiodine or eat food that has some radioiodine in it. When you take an iodine (KI) pill, it protects your thyroid gland from being harmed and prevents it from absorbing the radioidine.

TO BE CONTINUED ON THEIR WEBSITE

SOURCE: http://blog.letstalkhealth.com/2015/11/iodine-save-life/

Robots keep “dying” from radiation in Fukushima, making the nuclear fallout investigation impossible

Posted in 2017 with tags , , , , , , , on March 9, 2017 by theboldcorsicanflame

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SOURCE: Robots keep “dying” from radiation in Fukushima, making the nuclear fallout investigation impossible

Naohiro Masuda, the head of decommissioning for TEPCO, has acknowledged that they will have to start thinking “out of the box” if they are ever going to be able to examine the bottom of the core and determine where the melted debris is located.

And that out of the box thinking needs to happen quickly if they are to meet their schedule of beginning the actual clean-up work in 2021.

Radiation levels remain incredibly high at the plant. Last month, TEPCO used a remote-controlled camera and a special measurement device to take readings of the radiation levels near the core of reactor 2. While levels at the core were 73 sieverts per hour immediately after the disaster, they have now reached as high as 530 sieverts per hour. Humans exposed to this level of exposure would die almost immediately, while a robot could survive no longer than two hours. Scientists are unsure whether the radiation levels have risen considerably, or if they are only now being measured accurately for the first time. They also worry that since readings can still only be taken at a distance, the true radiation levels could be far higher. Either way, the findings cast further doubt on TEPCO’s ambitious plan to start cleaning the site up in only four years.

In the meantime, the radiation in the area has had a devastating effect on the region’s agriculture, and thousands of people remain displaced from their homes. It can only be hoped that TEPCO will come up with a better solution to determining the extent of the damage than dying robots, and they need to do so soon.

Sources for this article include: 

Mashable.com

JapanTimes.co.jp

NaturalNews.com

Radiation levels inside a stricken reactor at Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant have hit a record high capable of shutting down robots within 2 hours!!

Posted in 2017 with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on February 3, 2017 by theboldcorsicanflame

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Radiation levels inside a stricken reactor at Japan’s Fukushima nuclear plant have hit a record high capable of shutting down robots, in the latest challenge to efforts aimed at dismantling the disaster-hit facility.

Radiation levels inside the plant’s No. 2 reactor were estimated at 530 sieverts per hour at one spot, Tokyo Electric Power Co (TEPCO) said Thursday after analyzing images taken by a manually operated camera that probed the deepest point yet within the reactor.

Even after taking a 30-percent margin of error into account, the radiation level was still far higher than the previous record of 73 sieverts per hour detected by sensors in 2012 though at a point not as deep, TEPCO said. Radiation exposure at 530 sieverts per hour would effectively shut down TEPCO’s planned robot camera probe in under two hours.

But TEPCO said the high reading focused on a single point, with levels estimated to be much lower at other spots filmed by the camera. It added that the planned robot probe would not sustain severe damage because it was unlikely to linger for too long at a single point.

The three cameras mounted on a caterpillar-type robot are designed to withstand up to 1,000 sieverts in total. TEPCO said the radiation is not leaking outside the reactor. A massive undersea earthquake on March 11, 2011 sent a huge tsunami barrelling into Japan’s northeast coast, leaving more than 18,000 people dead or missing, and sending three reactors into meltdown at the Fukushima plant in the worst such accident since Chernobyl in 1986.

Japan’s government said in December that it expects the total costs – including compensation, decommissioning and decontamination – to reach 21.5 trillion yen ($190 billion) in a process likely to take decades as high radiation levels have slowed operations.

TEPCO has said it plans to eventually use robots to locate the fuel debris as part of the decommissioning process.

Images of the wreckage inside the No. 2 reactor captured by the camera show that the metal grating under the pressure vessel which contained nuclear fuel has largely sunken in, causing a hole about one metre wide.

Black debris that could be melted fuel is also seen in the images. Fuel may have melted through the vessel and damaged the grating but the exact cause was not determined, TEPCO spokesman Tatsuhiro Yamagishi said Friday. “It may have been caused by nuclear fuel that would have melted and made a hole in the vessel, but it is only a hypothesis at this stage,” he told AFP.

“We believe the captured images offer very useful information, but we still need to investigate given that it is very difficult to assume the actual condition inside,” he said.

Source:

http://hisz.rsoe.hu/

Japan: November 21st 2016:Tsunami warning for Fukushima after strong Earthquake hits Japan

Posted in 2016, Uncategorized with tags , , , , , , , on November 21, 2016 by theboldcorsicanflame

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A tsunami warning for waves up to three metres has been issued after a 7.3 magnitude earthquake hit northeastern Japan.

People are being warned to evacuate low-lying areas and Tokyo Electric Power Co is checking its nuclear plants in Fukushima prefecture for any damage.

The epicentre is not far from Fukushima’s Daiichi plant, which in 2011 had a nuclear meltdown following Japan’s strongest-ever earthquake – a 9.0…..

Location NPP Distance
Japan Fukushima Daini Npp 20.97 km
Japan Fukushima Daiichi Npp 20.80 km

Fukushima Radiation Has Contaminated The Entire Pacific Ocean & it’s still leaking 300 tons of radioactive waste every day!!

Posted in 2016, animals, Galaxy with tags , , , , , , , , , on October 25, 2016 by theboldcorsicanflame

01_fukushima_entire_pacific_pofukushima-debris-island-400x225Radioactive Debris from Fukushima approaching North America’s western coast       Credit – RT

The nuclear disaster has contaminated the world’s largest ocean in only five years….!!!#

What was the most dangerous nuclear disaster in world history? Most people would say the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in Ukraine, but they’d be wrong.

In 2011, an earthquake, believed to be an aftershock of the 2010 earthquake in Chile, created a tsunami that caused a meltdown at the TEPCO nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan.

Three nuclear reactors melted down and what happened next was the largest release of radiation into the water in the history of the world.

Over the next three months, radioactive chemicals, some in even greater quantities than Chernobyl, leaked into the Pacific Ocean. However, the numbers may actually be much higher as Japanese official estimates have been proven by several scientists to be flawed in recent years.

TO BE CONTINUED

Read More: http://www.trueactivist.com/fukushima-radiation-has-contaminated-the-entire-pacific-ocean-and-its-going-to-get-worse/

 

 

West Coast orcas experienced 100% infant mortality rate as radiation from Fukushima drifted across ocean

Posted in 2016, animals with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on August 25, 2016 by theboldcorsicanflame
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This image provided by SeaWorld San Diego shows mom and baby killer whales swimming together at SeaWorld San Diego’s Shamu Stadium, Thursday Feb. 14, 2013, in San Diego. Kasatka, a killer whale who is approximately 37 years old, gave birth to the calf Thursday under the watchful eyes of SeaWorld’s zoological team. The calf is estimated to weigh between 300 and 350 pounds and measure 6 to 7 feet. The gender of the calf is not yet known. (AP Photo/SeaWorld San Diego, Mike Aguilera)

The tragedy of Fukushima has been on going since 2011, but the death of our oceans has been oa slow burn for decades. In 2008, the Scientific American reported that there were 406 dead zones — meaning there was not enough oxygen to support life — worldwide.

At that time, the blame was from fertilizer and pesticide runoff. In 2010, scientists lamented the stunning amount of toxic and heavy metals — including aluminum, chromium, titanium, mercury, silver and lead — discovered in whales that lived thousands of miles away from civilization.

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According to a report by Common Dreams, these “pollutants were threatening the human food supply.”

Fast forwarding to today, five years past that fateful day in Fukushima, the struggling orca (killer whale) population is in even worse shape.

Are they headed for extinction?

FIND OUT MORE ON

http://newstarget.com/2016-08-23-west-coast-orcas-experiencing-100-infant-mortality-rate-as-radiation-from-fukushima-drifts-across-ocean.html

 

The Pacific Ocean: Fukushima has dealt the death blow to the Planet. Neda’s Malibu Beach Video

Posted in 2015, animals with tags , on February 26, 2015 by theboldcorsicanflame

The Pacific Ocean is a third of the Planet’s Oceans, The plankton is the first to go. It provides 70% of the earth’s oxygen

Tokyo Contaminated & Not Fit for Habitation, Doctor Says

Posted in 2014 with tags , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , on October 12, 2014 by theboldcorsicanflame

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All 23 districts of Tokyo contaminated with radiation, worse than at Chernobyl after the accident, and blood cells of children under ten are showing worrying changes; the WHO, the IAEA & the Japanese government cannot be trusted.

by Susie Greaves

In July 2014 Dr Shigeru Mita wrote a letter to his fellow doctors to explain his decision to move his practice from Tokyo to Okayama city in the West of Japan [1]. In it, he appeals to their sense of duty to answer the anxieties of parents in Japan who do not believe the information coming from the authorities. He says “I must state that the policies of the WHO, the IAEA or the Japanese government cannot be trusted.” and “if the power to save our citizens and future generations exists somewhere, it does not lie within the government or any academic association, but in the hands of individual clinical doctors ourselves.”

Mita claims that all 23 districts of Tokyo are contaminated, with the eastern area worst affected — up to 4 000 Bq/kg. (The becquerel is a unit of radioactivity. One Bq is the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second.) These findings confirm what the nuclear physicist Arnie Gundersen of Fairewinds Nuclear Education found in 2012, when he picked up five random soil samples in Tokyo from between paving stones, in parks and playgrounds. The levels of contamination were up to 7 000 Bq/kg; in the US, anything registering these levels would be considered nuclear waste [2].

While practising in Tokyo, Mita also discovered changes in the white blood cells of children under 10.

Independent science & independent reporting in Japan outlawed

In December 2013, the Japanese parliament passed a bill whereby public officials and private citizens could face ten years in prison for divulging “special state secrets”, and journalists, five years, for seeking to obtain classified information. The bill is widely interpreted as a way of preventing sensitive information about Fukushima (among other topics) reaching the Japanese public and by extension the rest of the world [3].

The independent organisation Reporters without Borders has downgraded Japan in its world press freedom index from 22nd place in 2012, to 53rd in 2013 and to 59th in 2014, following the passing of the state secrets bill. Reporters without Borders say that Japan“has been affected by a lack of transparency and almost zero respect for access to information on subjects directly or indirectly related to Fukushima”

Nuclear lobby put in charge……..TO BE CONTINUED ON

http://permaculturenews.org/2014/09/25/tokyo-contaminated-fit-habitation-doctor-says/

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